MercedesBenz GLC FCELL Combines Fuel Cell With PlugIn Capability

Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on October 12, 2018Categories Electric Vehicle News BatteryLithium-ion .embed-container { position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%; height: 0; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; } .embed-container iframe, .embed-container object, .embed-container embed { position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; }.embed-container { position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%; height: 0; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; } .embed-container iframe, .embed-container object, .embed-container embed { position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; }Press release:Mercedes-Benz GLC F-CELL: Two electrical energy sources: battery and fuel cell Length (mm)4.671 Height (mm)1.653 Source: Electric Vehicle News Combined electrical consumption (kWh/100 km)13,7 The Mercedes-Benz GLC F‑CELL (combined hydrogen consumption 0.34 kg/100 km, combined CO2 emissions 0 g/km, combined electrical consumption 13.7 kWh/100 km)1 is a unique plug-in hybrid as it combines innovative fuel-cell and battery technologies for the first time: apart from electricity, it also runs on pure hydrogen. Intelligent interplay between battery and fuel cell, long range, and short refuelling times make the GLC F‑CELL a vehicle of high everyday practicality and also suitable for short and long-distance motoring. With 4.4 kg of hydrogen on board, the SUV generates enough energy for a range of up to 478 km1 in hybrid mode. The large lithium-ion battery delivers up to 51 km1 of range in the NEDC. An output of 155 kW guarantees both dynamic performance and locally emission-free driving pleasure. Initial vehicles are to be handed over to selected customers at the end of October.The GLC F-CELL represents an important step by Mercedes-Benz in the development of fuel cell technology. It features a totally new fuel cell system which is so compact that the entire system can be housed in the engine compartment for the first time and installed at the same mounting points as a conventional engine. In addition, the use of platinum in the fuel cell has been reduced by 90 percent in comparison to the predecessor vehicle. Consequently resources are conserved, and system costs are cut without impairing performance. Two carbon-fibre-encased tanks built into the vehicle floor hold 4.4 kg of hydrogen. Thanks to globally standardised 700-bar tank technology, the supply of hydrogen can be replenished within just three minutes – as quickly as is customary when refuelling a combustion-engined car.The lithium-ion battery has a gross capacity of 13.5 kWh and additionally serves as an energy source for the electric motor. Plug-in technology makes it easy to charge via the 7.4 kW on-board charger at a standard household socket, a wallbox or a public charging station – from 10 to 100 percent SoC (State of Charge) in approx. 1.5 hours if the full power is used. Just like the drive motor, an asynchronous motor with an output of 155 kW (211 hp) and a torque of 365 Nm, the powerful storage battery is space-savingly installed in the rear of the SUV.Coordinated: operating strategy with a unique variety of combinationsThe innovative plug-in fuel-cell drive combines the advantages of both zero-emission drive technologies and, thanks to its intelligent operating strategy, continuously optimises the use of both energy sources in line with the current operating situation. This is also influenced by the selected drive program: ECO, COMFORT or SPORT..There are four operating modes:HYBRID: the vehicle draws power from both energy sources. Power peaks are handled by the battery, while the fuel cell runs in the optimum efficiency range.F-CELL: the state of charge of the high-voltage battery is kept constant by the energy from the fuel cell. Only hydrogen is consumed. This mode is ideal for steady cruising over long distances.BATTERY: the GLC F-CELL runs all-electrically and is powered by the high-voltage battery. The fuel-cell system is not in operation. This is the ideal mode for short distances.CHARGE: charging the high-voltage battery has priority, for example in order to recharge the battery for the maximum overall range prior to refuelling with hydrogen or to create power reserves.In all operating modes, the system features an energy recovery function, which makes it possible to recover energy during braking or coasting and to store it in the battery.The battery and all components containing hydrogen are governed by particularly stringent safety standards typical of Mercedes. Alongside safety in the event of a crash, all Mercedes-Benz vehicles undergo additional component tests at system level that go far beyond the usual tests. The powertrain components and hydrogen tanks of the F-CELL pre-series vehicles are space-savingly and safely housed in the engine compartment as well as in the vehicle underbody.Mercedes-Benz’s safety assistance systems are also all on board the GLC F‑CELL. Their sensors have an additional purpose in vehicles that run purely on electric power in that their signals assist the powertrain control with the selection of a range-preserving, efficient strategy for using the on-board energy sources. The energy employed for accelerating the car is used intelligently, taking account of the route characteristics, topography and traffic situation. The driver can always set other priorities, of course, but subtle hints inform them of what they can do intuitively to optimise the vehicle range.Self-assured: with the DNA of a genuine MercedesDespite the extraordinary powertrain concept, the GLC F-CELL boasts the everyday practicality and comfort people have come to expect from a Mercedes‑Benz. Even the luggage compartment remains unchanged, with the exception of a minimal step, and the rear seats are only slightly higher positioned in order to make space for the hydrogen tanks. The climate comfort in the GLC F-CELL is on a par with conventional vehicles, and the pre-entry climate control based on mains charging current is an intelligent way of safeguarding the vehicle’s range. At cooler temperatures, the vehicle will make energy-efficient use of the waste heat from the fuel cell in order to optimise the energy balance of the vehicle.Remote retrieval of vehicle status via Mercedes me provides a wealth of information: current hydrogen tank level and current battery charging status as well as current range, mileage covered, driving time and consumption since the last start or since the last trip odometer reset.The GLC F-CELL is equipped with coil springs on the front axle and with single-chamber air suspension with integral automatic level control on the rear axle. This means that, even when the vehicle is carrying a load, there is no change in spring travel at the rear axle, which guarantees balanced vibration characteristics with a virtually constant natural frequency of the body, even when the vehicle is loaded.Marketing focus on H2 citiesThe market launch of the GLC F-CELL is imminent. Initial vehicles are to be handed over to selected customers at the end of October.The market launch will focus above all on major cities which are already comparatively well equipped with hydrogen filling stations: Berlin, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Munich, Cologne and Düsseldorf. The GLC F-CELL, which features an excellent scope of equipment as standard, will be available solely in the form of a full-service rental model.This will include all maintenance and possible repairs together with a comprehensive warranty package covering the entire rental period.Production: global competence networkDuring production of the innovative fuel-cell drive, Daimler is able to call upon its global competence network. The heart of the technology, the fuel-cell stack, is produced at Mercedes-Benz Fuel Cell (MBFC) in Vancouver, Canada. The entire fuel-cell unit and the hydrogen storage system were developed by the Daimler subsidiary NuCellSys in Kirchheim/Nabern in Baden-Württemberg. The Daimler parent plant in Untertürkheim is responsible for fuel-cell system assembly, also in Nabern. The hydrogen tank system, consisting of carbon-fibre-encased tanks, is produced at Daimler’s Mannheim plant, while the lithium-ion battery comes from the wholly owned Daimler subsidiary ACCUMOTIVE in Kamenz, Saxony. The fully fledged, family-friendly everyday SUV is produced in Bremen, just like the GLC with conventional drive.Pioneers: Daimler has been working on the fuel cell for over 30 yearsDaimler researchers have been tinkering with this technology since the 1980s. In 1994, Mercedes-Benz unveiled the first fuel-cell vehicle to the global public – the NECAR 1. Many other vehicles followed: to date, fuel-cell vehicles from Mercedes-Benz, including the B-Class F-CELL, have together covered over eighteen million kilometres, thereby demonstrating the maturity of the powertrain concept.The infrastructure is essentialA full-coverage infrastructure is essential to the success of electric mobility. The spread of both charging stations and hydrogen filling stations is proceeding apace around the world. Whether at home, at work, on the road or when shopping: there are various ways to supply electric vehicles with power. Also when it comes to the H2 infrastructure, progress is constantly being made. Together with its partners in the H2 Mobility joint venture, Daimler has already drawn up a concrete action plan. By the end of next year the H2 filling station network is to be expanded from its current level of 51 to 100 stations. The partners’ long-term objective is a network with up to 400 hydrogen refuelling stations. Similar infrastructure projects are being promoted in Europe, the USA and Japan.Technical data 101 photos Fully Charged Tries Out Hyundai NEXO Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car Rated output (kW/hp)155 (211) Combined CO2 emissions (g/km)0 Plug-in capability limits the necessity to refuel with hydrogen.The Mercedes-Benz GLC F-CELL is one of the most extraordinary hydrogen fuel cell cars, because right from the factory it’s envisioned as a plug-in hybrid.The battery pack capacity was selected to enable daily driving in battery-electric mode and use hydrogen only on longer trips. In other FCVs from Toyota, Honda and Hyundai, we see only small battery packs, required to support fuel cells that don’t cope well with fast changes in power output.The 13.5 kWh battery (9.3 kWh usable) is the same as in the 3rd generation plug-in hybrids EQ Power. Under the NEDC, GLC F-CELL can go up to 51 km (31 miles) on battery power alone. It’s especially cool because the hydrogen refueling infrastructure is currently very limited.Hydrogen tanks store 4.4 kg of hydrogen at 700-bar, which should be enough for 478 km (297 miles) NEDC, basically more or less on par with long-range all-electric cars.FCVs Battery-electric range in battery mode (NEDC) (km)51 Wheelbase (mm)2873 Energy content (gross/net) (kWh)13,5 /9,3 Toyota Claims Mass Production Of Fuel Cell Vehicles Will Start Soon Daimler boasts that the new hydrogen fuel cell system is a major step forward, but we are not sure whether the GLC F-CELL will be anything more than a pilot project in a few markets.“The GLC F-CELL represents an important step by Mercedes-Benz in the development of fuel cell technology. It features a totally new fuel cell system which is so compact that the entire system can be housed in the engine compartment for the first time and installed at the same mounting points as a conventional engine. In addition, the use of platinum in the fuel cell has been reduced by 90 percent in comparison to the predecessor vehicle. Consequently resources are conserved, and system costs are cut without impairing performance. Two carbon-fibre-encased tanks built into the vehicle floor hold 4.4 kg of hydrogen. Thanks to globally standardised 700-bar tank technology, the supply of hydrogen can be replenished within just three minutes – as quickly as is customary when refuelling a combustion-engined car.”“Despite the extraordinary powertrain concept, the GLC F-CELL boasts the everyday practicality and comfort people have come to expect from a Mercedes‑Benz. Even the luggage compartment remains unchanged, with the exception of a minimal step, and the rear seats are only slightly higher positioned in order to make space for the hydrogen tanks.”Mercedes-Benz GLC F-CELL spec:Battery-electric range: up to 51 km (31 miles) NEDCbattery capacity: 13.5 kWh (9.3 kWh usable)H2 range in hybrid mode: 478 km (297 miles) NEDCH2 tanks capacity: 4.4 kg of hydrogen155 kW (211 hp) and 365 Nm electric motortop speed of 160 km/h (100 mph)7.4 kW on-board charger (10-100% SOC research in 1.5 hour) Combined hydrogen consumption in hybrid mode (kg/100 km)0.34 Fuel cellPEM GLC F-CELL1 Width (mm)2096 H2 tank capacity (kg) (usable for SAE J2601, 2014 or more recent)4.4 EngineElectric motor Honda Confident Fuel Cell Vehicles Will Go Mainstream: No Timeline Peak torque (Nm)365 Track width (mm)1625 (front axle) | 1621 (rear axle) 1 Figures for fuel consumption, electrical consumption and CO2 emissions are provisional and were determined by the technical service for the certification process in accordance with the WLTP test method and correlated into NEDC figures. EC type approval and certificate of conformity with official figures are not yet available. Differences between the stated figures and the official figures are possible. Top speed (km/h)160 (governed) H2 range in hybrid mode (NEDC) (km)478 read more

Volkswagen eCrafter Wont Be Available In UK Until Mid2021

first_img Electric MAN eTGE 4.140 Van Debuts At IAA “Van operators interested in finding out more about making the switch to electric vehicles can always get a knowledge boost and advice from experts at the EV Experience Centre in Milton Keynes. And to get a real taste of what’s coming up, they’ll also have the chance to see the Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles e-Crafter there this weekend.”Volkswagen e-Crafter specs:up to 173 km (107 miles)36 kWh battery80% recharge in 45 minutes (at 40 kW DC CCS Combo) or 5.5 hour AC (7.2 kW on-board charger)100 kW and 290 Nm electric motor90 km/h (56 mph) top speedDepending on the type approval and whether it is a 3.5 tonne or 4.25 tonne variant, it offers a payload of up to 1.0 to 1.75 tonnes. Its cargo space provides almost 11 m3 of volume. Volkswagen e-Crafter Electric Van: Test Drive Review Van operators interested in switching to EVs can always get… a knowledge boostAfter the UK debut at the CV Show in Birmingham, Volkswagen presents its all-electric large van e-Crafter also at Milton Keynes EV Experience Centre (from Friday 7 to Monday 10 December), however, it’s still more than two years from market launch.The German manufacturer already began sales of left-hand-drive version in some European markets, but the right-hand-drive for the UK is expected around mid-2021. Pricing and specifications have yet to be confirmed. This is probably why alternatives like Renault Master Z.E. can stay relatively expensive without much EV competition.See Also Source: Electric Vehicle News 8 photos “Based in centre:mk at 26-28 Crown Walk, Milton Keynes (MK9 3AH), the EV Experience Centre was the UK’s first brand neutral centre dedicated to electric vehicles. Funded through a partnership with Go Ultra Low and complementing Milton Keynes’ status as an Ultra Low City, the centre’s aim is to provide free education and advice about electric and plug-in vehicles. Not only can the team there inform visitors about the different electric vehicles currently available and coming to the market, but they also offer advice on charging and infrastructure, as well as answering questions to allow customers to make informed choices. They also offer test drive opportunities in a number of different electric cars.”Commenting on the Centre’s latest arrival, Ted Foster, Centre Manager at the EV Experience Centre said:‘We deal everyday with enquiries and concerns about electric vehicles from potential customers, and there’s no doubt van operators have a raft of issues to understand too. Having the e-Crafter at the Centre for people to view, especially over such a busy shopping weekend, will spark some interesting discussions and get operators thinking about what’s right for their fleet.’ Volkswagen Delivers First e-Crafter Electric Vans Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on December 6, 2018Categories Electric Vehicle Newslast_img read more

Falco patents liquidcooled electric bicycle motor opening possibilities

first_imgThe enemy of electric vehicle motors is heat, regardless of whether we’re talking about electric cars or electric bikes. And while larger electric vehicles have had liquid-cooled motors for years, electric bicycles may soon be getting cooler as well. That’s thanks to a new patent granted to Falco eMotors for a liquid-cooled electric bicycle motor design. more…Subscribe to Electrek on YouTube for exclusive videos and subscribe to the podcast.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V1zk7Eb8r-s&list=PL_Qf0A10763mA7Byw9ncZqxjke6Gjz0MtThe post Falco patents liquid-cooled electric bicycle motor, opening possibilities appeared first on Electrek. Source: Charge Forwardlast_img read more

Buick in double trouble with the stewards

first_imgShare on Twitter Buick in double trouble with the stewards Ron Cox Share on Facebook First published on Sun 20 Jul 2008 19.01 EDT Smart, who completed a double with Quatermain in the next race, has a high opinion of Courageous. “I think a lot of him and I wanted to bring him here for his first run as this is a nice track. He was very green early on and the experience will have done him no harm. He will improve a hell of a lot from this,” said the trainer. Clowance, who finished fourth behind Look Here in the Oaks, yesterday emerged as a likely contender for the Ladbrokes St Leger at Doncaster in September. “We’re really hoping to go for the St Leger next with her,” said the filly’s owner, Barry Hurley. “She’ll stay all day and if it was lucky enough to be a bog, I think she’d go very close to winning.” Clowance, trained by Roger Charlton, is 50-1 with the sponsors for the final Classic of the season. Meanwhile Look Here will travel to York to contest next month’s Yorkshire Oaks before trainer Ralph Beckett makes any decision about her participation in the Leger. Horse racing … we have a small favour to ask. The Guardian will engage with the most critical issues of our time – from the escalating climate catastrophe to widespread inequality to the influence of big tech on our lives. At a time when factual information is a necessity, we believe that each of us, around the world, deserves access to accurate reporting with integrity at its heart.More people are reading and supporting The Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism than ever before. And unlike many news organisations, we have chosen an approach that allows us to keep our journalism accessible to all, regardless of where they live or what they can afford. But we need your ongoing support to keep working as we do.Our editorial independence means we set our own agenda and voice our own opinions. Guardian journalism is free from commercial and political bias and not influenced by billionaire owners or shareholders. This means we can give a voice to those less heard, explore where others turn away, and rigorously challenge those in power.We need your support to keep delivering quality journalism, to maintain our openness and to protect our precious independence. Every reader contribution, big or small, is so valuable. Support The Guardian from as little as $1 – and it only takes a minute. Thank you. Sun 20 Jul 2008 19.01 EDT William Buick, the season’s leading apprentice rider, found himself in trouble with two sets of stewards at the weekend. Disqualified from first place on Hilbre Court at Lingfield on Saturday night after failing to weigh in at the correct weight, Buick was hit by a two-day ban for excessive use of the whip at Redcar yesterday.Hilbre Court, successful by a neck in the claiming race at Lingfield, was placed last following an objection to Buick by the clerk of the scales. Last night the colt’s trainer, Brian Meehan, said he would be pursuing the matter further today. Buick was also stood down for two days on August 7 and 8 for using his whip with excessive frequency, and down the shoulder in the forearm position, aboard runner-up Thunderball in the opening race at Redcar which went to Bryan Smart’s well-backed newcomer, Courageous. Share on WhatsApp Share via Email Horse racing Share on Messengercenter_img Share on Twitter Read more Share on Facebook Support The Guardian Shares00 Topics Share on LinkedIn Share via Email Since you’re here… The Recap: sign up for the best of the Guardian’s sport coverage Share on Pinterest Reuse this contentlast_img read more

Andrews Kurth Leads WCA Waste Sale to Marquarie

first_img Remember me Username Andrews & Kurth is representing Houston-based WCA Waste Corporation in its sale to Macquarie Infrastructure Partners II for $526 million – an all-cash deal that was made public Wednesday . . .You must be a subscriber to The Texas Lawbook to access this content. Lost your password?center_img Password Not a subscriber? Sign up for The Texas Lawbook.last_img

Updated – SEC Settles UniPixels Investment Fraud Case Charges Two Former Execs

first_imgNot a subscriber? Sign up for The Texas Lawbook. Lost your password? Username Remember mecenter_img California-based Uni-Pixel agreed Wednesday to pay the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission $750,000 to resolve allegations that the technology company fraudulently misled investors about its operations. At the same time, the SEC filed charges against two former Uni-Pixel executives for their role in a scheme in which “materially misleading” statements about the production and sales of a touch-screen sensor product were made public . . .You must be a subscriber to The Texas Lawbook to access this content. Passwordlast_img read more

Researchers compare existing approaches for automating diagnostic procedures of skin lesions

first_img Source:https://benthamscience.com Aug 15 2018The three prevalent skin cancers, according to the literature are melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.Melanoma is an archetype of skin cancer that typically result from an unpredictable disorder in the melanocytic cells, thus causing improper synthesis of the melanin. While melanoma might account for the least amongst the three aforementioned skin cancer types, it has, however, been umpired to account for 75-79% of skin cancer related deaths. Literature reports have it that Melanoma melanoma is the 5th most common cancer occurring amongst males, 7th most commonly occurring cancer in females, and 2nd most common form of cancer amongst young adults ranging from 15-29 years of age.Related StoriesNew e-tattoo beats conventional methods at monitoring heart healthNew ‘virtual biopsy’ device developed to detect skin tumorsVitamin D supplementation may not reduce the risk of heart diseaseThe above concerns have propelled the need to provide automated systems for medical diagnosis of skin cancer diseases within a strict time window, which means working towards reducing the unnecessary biopsies, increasing the speed of diagnosis and providing reproducibility of diagnostic results.Okuboyejo and Olugbara, in their work, used have applied comparative analysis to review and compare the existing novel approaches for automating the diagnostic procedures of melanocytic skin lesions, including their success and shortcomings. These lesion images could either be microscopic (dermoscopic) or macroscopic (clinical) in nature. The authors have equally enlightened the research community on the homogeneous skin lesion diagnostic procedures frequently used in the research community. This work is particularly valuable for decision makers to consider tradeoffs between accuracy of diagnostic procedures versus complexity of the procedures. Recommendations such as the need to embrace feature selection optimization are made in order to reduce complexity and protracted computation. In addition, the authors proposed to favor a better classification model over the need to identify a large number of features required to discriminate between lesion categories.last_img read more

Most commonly prescribed drugs to primary care patients are not often tested

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Aug 28 2018Drugs most commonly prescribed to patients seen by primary care physicians are not often tested in the patients who go to these clinics, where most people receive their care, say investigators at Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC) and Yale School of Medicine.The study, published in the September edition of Journal of General Internal Medicine, looked at drugs for conditions that are commonly treated in primary care settings, such as acne, hypertension, and diabetes.The finding suggests primary care patients are being treated with drugs that have not been tested in settings where they are being seen, precluding the possibility that equally effective less dangerous drugs are not being used, says the study’s main author, Dan Merenstein, MD, a professor in the Department of Family Medicine at GUMC. He is also director of research programs in family medicine.”I think it is most important that the studies be done in primary care settings if they are to be used in this patient population,” Merenstein says. “For example, studying an antibiotic for sinusitis in an ears, nose and throat specialty practice office is totally different than studying it in a primary care setting.”Merenstein explains that by the time a patient sees a subspecialist, they often have already received numerous courses of antibiotics and have a more severe bacterial disease. The patients seen in primary care offices for sinusitis often have viruses or less severe bacterial infections.”Sinusitis is the number one reason antibiotics are prescribed in the output setting in the U.S., most often inappropriately,” he adds.”When a patient is at the point of seeing a specialist, their condition is usually much more severe than what a primary care physician would typically see. For example, by the time someone reaches the endocrinologist for their diabetes, they have a very different severity level of their diabetes than we see in primary care,” he says. “Therefore, the treatment will be very different.”Related StoriesRaman Spectroscopy as a Universal Analytical Technique for Bodily FluidsComputers, games, crafting keep the aging brain sharpMice cured of HIV in an experiment sparks new hopeThe findings were made by examining 151 clinical studies (resulting in 129 published studies) of 40 different agents for all new drugs approved by the FDA between 2005-2012. Researchers found that none of the studies were conducted only in primary care patients, and only 8 percent included some primary care patients in the mix of participants. The rest of the study patients were overseen by subpecialists or other non-primary care physicians, not in a primary care setting.Researchers also determined that only about 30 percent of studies were conducted in the United States. The other studies may have included some U.S. patients or were conducted outside of the country. Almost 22 percent of the studies included no geographical information.Merenstein says that, while primary care physicians don’t need to lead all of the trials that test drugs they might prescribe, they should be represented in advisory boards of the National Institutes of Health, should be considered for study grants and, most importantly, primary care patients need to be included in trials of drugs that will be used in primary care settings.”The NIH has funded only one very small study of sinusitis in a primary care setting, and family practitioners represent only 0.16% of NIH advisory committee members,” he says. “I would like to see the FDA and NIH make it a priority to study conditions seen in primary care settings, in primary care settings.” Source:https://gumc.georgetown.edu/news/Commonly-Used-Drugs-are-Rarely-Studied-in-Primary-Care-Patientslast_img read more

Prototype telescope grabs its first pics of southern sky

The Australian SKA Pathfinder telescope (ASKAP), a precursor to the much larger Square Kilometre Array (SKA) which will begin construction later this decade, today released its first images of the southern sky. SKA aims to test relativity, study galaxy evolution, and peer back into the era of the very first stars and galaxies. It will incorporate thousands of radio telescope dishes across vast expanses of southern Africa and Australia, but to test out techniques, astronomers are building precursors in both host countries. Australia’s will eventually include 36 dishes, but the first results were produced by just six working together. Each one is fitted with a novel detector known as a phased array feed (visible at the focus of the dish), which is the radio astronomy version of the charge-coupled device in a digital camera. This helps astronomers survey the sky at high speed—one of SKA’s key tasks—because it can look in multiple directions at the same time. In one of ASKAP’s first images, it observed an area of the southern sky covering 10 square degrees (50 times the size of the full moon) by capturing nine overlapping zones simultaneously. It produced the image in 12 hours, twice the speed of any comparable telescope in the Southern Hemisphere. When all 36 dishes of ASKAP are operational, it will be 25 times faster still and will be the world’s top survey telescope at centimeter wavelengths. read more

Computer becomes a bird enthusiast

Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Email If you’re a bird enthusiast, you can pick out the “chick-a-DEE-dee” song of the Carolina chickadee with just a little practice. But if you’re an environmental scientist faced with parsing thousands of hours of recordings of birdsongs in the lab, you might want to enlist some help from your computer. A new approach to automatic classification of birdsong borrows techniques from human voice recognition software to sort through the sounds of hundreds of species and decides on its own which features make each one unique.Collectors of animal sounds are facing a data deluge. Thanks to cheap digital recording devices that can capture sound for days in the field, “it’s really, really easy to collect sound, but it’s really difficult to analyze it,” say Aaron Rice, a bioacoustics researcher at Cornell University, who was not involved in the new work. His lab has collected 6 million hours of underwater recordings, from which they hope to pick out the signature sounds of various marine mammals.Knowing where and when a certain species is vocalizing might help scientists understand habitat preferences, track their movements or population changes, and recognize when a species is disrupted by human development. But to keep these detailed records, researchers rely on software that can reliably sort through the cacophony they capture in the field. Typically, scientists build one computer program to recognize one species, and then start all over for another species, Rice says. Training a computer to recognize lots of species in one pass is “a challenge that we’re all facing.” Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe That challenge is even bigger in the avian world, says Dan Stowell, a computer scientist at Queen Mary University of London who studied human voice analysis before turning his attention to the treetops. “I realized there are quite a lot of unsolved problems in birdsong,” says Stowell, who is lead author on the new paper. Among the biggest issues: There are hundreds of species with distinct and complex calls—and in tropical hotspots, many of them sing all at once.Most methods for classifying birdsong rely on a human to define which features separate one species from another. For example, if researchers know that a chickadee’s tweet falls within a predictable range of frequencies, they can program a computer to recognize sounds in that range as chickadee-esque. The computer gets better and better at deciding how to use these features to classify a new sound clip, based on “training” rounds where it examines clips with the species already correctly labeled.In the new paper, Stowell and his Queen Mary colleague, computer scientist Mark Plumbley, used a different approach, known as unsupervised training. Instead of telling the computer which features of a birdsong are going to be important, they let it decide for itself, so to speak. The computer has to figure out “what are the jigsaw pieces” that make up any birdsong it hears, Stowell says. For example, some of the jigsaw pieces it selects are split-second upsweeps or downsweeps in frequency—the sharp pitch changes that make up a chirp. After seeing correctly labeled examples of which species produce which kinds of sounds, the program can spit out a list—ranked in order of confidence—of the species it thinks are present in a recording.Stowell and Plumbley tested this approach on several natural recordings, including birdsong from the British Library Sound Archive, and a large data set recorded in Brazil (77 hours; 501 species) that was publicly released as part of an annual classification challenge organized by the Scaled Acoustic BIODiversity platform project. Their unsupervised approach performed better than the more traditional methods of classification—those based on a set of predetermined features—and managed to reach up to 85.4% accuracy in the large Brazilian data set, they report today in PeerJ.The new system’s accuracy fell short of beating the top new computer programs that analyzed the same data sets for the annual competition. But Potamitis Ilyas, a computer scientist at the Technological Educational Institute of Crete in Greece, says that the new system deserves credit for applying unsupervised computer learning to the complex world of birdsong for the first time. He also suggests that this approach could be combined with other ways of processing and classifying sound, because it “can squeeze out some info that other techniques may miss.”Eighty-five percent accuracy on a choice between more than 500 calls and songs is impressive, Rice says, and shows “both the biological community and the computer community what you can do with these large sound archives.” The next step, he says, is to test the technology with new recordings to see if it can hold its own. read more

US highcontainment biosafety labs to get closer scrutiny

first_imgA critic of the select agent program, molecular biologist Richard Ebright of Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey, says that several “substantive” and many other “minor” changes in the memo “will improve U.S. select-agent oversight.”One change that some experts have long advocated is a system for lab workers to anonymously report incidents without fear of reprisals. Federal labs will be required to disclose to the public what agents they are studying and information on accidents, and nonfederal labs will be encouraged to do the same. The federal select agent program must also issue an annual report summarizing all accidents. (The program now publishes such summaries only every few years.)The memo also calls for a federal assessment of “the appropriate number of high containment U.S. laboratories required” to handle select agents. Ebright and others say the rapid growth in the number of federally funded biodefense labs following the 2001 anthrax attacks has only increased the risks of an accidental or deliberate release of an agent. A review is “crucial” and “a decade-and-a-half overdue,” Ebright says. But unlike most other steps in the memo, this one does not come with a deadline for implementation.Ebright is also disappointed that oversight of select agents will remain with the CDC and U.S. Department of Agriculture rather than an independent federal agency that does not perform select agent work.One biosafety expert had only praise for the White House plan. “The memo really speaks to the efforts the U.S. government has taken to address the serious biosafety lapses that occurred at our nation’s laboratories,” says Amesh Adalja of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center for Health Security in Baltimore, Maryland. “Research on select agents is a very vital national security need and public confidence in the safety of the research is needed for it to successfully continue.” The timelines in the memo, he adds, “mean that progress can be tracked and measured.” Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! 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Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)center_img Spurred by several accidents at federal laboratories involving risky pathogens, the White House today announced a sweeping set of steps aimed at shoring up biosafety and biosecurity procedures. The plan includes public disclosure of lab accidents, a new system for reporting mishaps, and a review of the large number of high-containment labs in the country.The incidents included inadvertent shipments of live anthrax samples at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta and the Department of Defense, and the discovery of old vials of live smallpox on the campus of the National Institutes of Health. Accidents at universities have also drawn scrutiny of federal oversight of labs that work with select agents, a list of risky viruses, bacteria, and toxins that could potentially be used to cause harm.A review launched in August 2014 has resulted in a 3-page memo (plus 184 pages of attachments and related reports) sent today to federal agencies from the president’s science adviser, John Holdren, and Lisa Monaco, assistant to the president for homeland security and counterterrorism. It describes about 50 steps with timelines, ranging from beefed-up biosafety training to plans for an outside review of local labs’ protocols for inactivating select agents. Most steps are to be completed within the next year or two. Emaillast_img read more

Alzheimers protein may help brain fight infection

first_img Email Six years ago, Tanzi and neuroscientist Robert Moir, also at MGH, decided to test a hunch that ß amyloid behaves similarly to a class of proteins with well-known beneficial properties, called antimicrobial peptides, or AMPs. Some AMPs also form fibers around cells, but they use them to trap and kill microbes throughout the body. To see whether ß amyloid was similarly lethal, the team tested it in lab dishes on a suite of different microbes, including the yeast Candida albicans, and bacteria like Escherichia coli and several different strains of Streptococcus. The maligned protein was just as toxic to many pathogens as the AMPs. Indeed, against some microbes, it was 100 times more lethal than penicillin, Moir says. Moir and Tanzi hypothesized that ß amyloid has an ancient role in the body protecting against foreign invaders. Few took them seriously, however, because the molecule hadn’t been shown to kill microbes in living animals. They also encountered resistance, Moir says, from those who support the dominant approach to developing Alzheimer’s drugs. For decades, pharmaceutical companies have treated ß amyloid as a “freak” with no beneficial purpose, and focused nearly all their energies on finding drugs to eliminate the molecules, he says. In these companies’ view, according to Moir, “everything it does is bad—all you’ve got to do is get rid of it and you’ll be hunky-dory.” The new study is a “proof of concept” in animals that ß amyloid does indeed protect against pathogens, Tanzi says. First, the researchers used mice that had been genetically modified to produce excess amounts of the human version of ß amyloid—a common Alzheimer’s disease model. Then they injected the rodents’ brains with Salmonella bacteria to cause an infection and waited to see whether the mice making the extra amyloid did better than controls at fighting off the microbes. All the mice died within 96 hours, but those with human amyloid lost less weight, had fewer bacteria in their brains, and lived up to roughly 30 hours longer than the control mice, the team reports today in Science Translational Medicine.Next, the scientists tested their hypothesis in the widely studied worm Caenorhabditis elegans, and found that a strain genetically engineered to produce excess amyloid in their guts survived up to 3 days longer after an exposure to Salmonella and yeast than typical worms. Taken together, the animal data suggest that a range of different microbes can induce amyloid plaques to form, Tanzi says. Most striking, he says, are results from mice engineered to make human amyloid ß. The rodents would not normally develop amyloid plaques until late in life, but young ones formed the sticky deposits immediately after the Salmonella injection, providing evidence that the infection and plaques were linked, Tanzi says. The fact that amyloid can behave like an antimicrobial peptide is “really surprising,” and could be a new angle for the Alzheimer’s field, Soto Jara says. Still, he says, the work is “highly speculative at this point.” Tanzi acknowledges that. “We are not saying that any of these microbial pathogens cause Alzheimer’s disease” in people, he notes. To investigate that, scientists will need to examine the brain tissue of many people who have died of Alzheimer’s, looking for different pathogens and whether the microbes are surrounded by amyloid plaques, he says. Although dozens of previous studies have hunted for infectious agents that could trigger Alzheimer’s, they haven’t been systematic enough to identify a culprit, Tanzi says. A new, half-million-dollar project sponsored by the Cure Alzheimer’s Fund will soon take on that challenge, he adds. If scientists determine that certain microbes do trigger amyloid deposition in human brains, Tanzi suggests it might be possible to develop antibodies that target them and avert that reaction. In addition, if ß amyloid does play an important protective role in the brain, it might make sense to treat it more like cholesterol—which is needed by all cells but dangerous in high levels—than something that needs to be completely eliminated, Tanzi says: “Slow it down, yes—but don’t wipe it out.” Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)center_img The classic villain in Alzheimer’s disease is ß amyloid, a protein fragment that can misfold and form sticky plaques around neurons in the brain. Now, a new study in mice and worms supports a controversial hypothesis that the plaques may not be all bad. ß amyloid’s tendency to choke neurons could be linked to an ancient evolutionary mission to protect the brain from pathogens, the authors say. Some say the work could open new avenues for treating and preventing the deadly degenerative disease, but many in the Alzheimer’s field remain skeptical of the research, which used animals genetically modified to make human ß amyloid. Although the new data are “fascinating,” they “remain very contrived in the sense that they don’t bear a direct relationship to what we see in the human condition,” says Colin Masters, a neuroscientist at the University of Melbourne in Australia.ß-amyloid deposits can damage many organs besides the brain, including the heart, liver, and kidneys, says neuroscientist Rudolph Tanzi of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston, a leader of the new study. That raises a puzzling question: If the protein is so bad, why do animals dating back to the 400-million-year-old coelacanth fish taxon produce it? Among mammals, the gene that codes for the protein from which ß amyloid derives is “almost identical” across species, says Claudio Soto Jara, a neuroscientist at the University of Texas, Houston. Dogs, for example, develop Alzheimer-like ß-amyloid plaques and symptoms of dementia as they age. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! 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Science lessons for the next president

first_img Alzheimer’s disease, detectable in this brain image, is on the rise. The genome-editing revolution beckonsCRISPR raises tough ethical issuesWhat the science says: CRISPR is a new gene-editing technology that makes it easier, faster, and cheaper than ever before to alter the DNA of any organism, from bacteria to people. It is based on a molecular system that single-celled creatures evolved to defend against invading viruses. CRISPR is a major departure from earlier genetic-engineering techniques, including transcription activatorlike effector nucleases and zinc finger nucleases, which were costlier, slower, and less precise. CRISPR readily snips DNA, which allows scientists to cripple a gene, add in DNA, and even mix genes from unrelated organisms.Why it matters: A powerful tool for basic research, CRISPR could also lead to new treatments for genetic disease in humans, pest-resistant crops with higher yields, and disease-resistant livestock. But uses of CRISPR could also raise profound ethical and regulatory concerns. It could allow the creation of human embryos with modified genes in their germ line—eggs and sperm—meaning the changes would be passed on to future generations. And, in an approach known as gene drive, CRISPR could be used to permanently alter the genome of an entire species in ways that could shift its evolutionary path and ecological role, or even wipe it off Earth. In principle, gene drive could give an endangered species a boost, wreck the genetic defenses that allow some weeds to resist herbicides, or drive a disease-carrying mosquito to extinction.Pending policy issues: One big question facing the government is whether it should fund CRISPR editing of human embryos for research purposes. More troublesome is the prospect that CRISPR could be used to make babies that are free of known genetic defects and even have enhanced traits, such as better night vision or a stronger pitching arm. The next president will also face debate over whether the government should regulate plants and animals altered with CRISPR in the same way it treats other genetically modified (GM) organisms. (The U.S. Department of Agriculture has already said that using CRISPR to modify crop DNA in ways that could occur naturally is not covered by existing regulations on GM crops.) And what limits should be placed on potentially powerful gene drives?—Jon Cohen During the Ebola epidemic, scientists anxiously monitored the virus (blue) for signs that it was changing. Benjamin Shearn / Getty Images Email Seas are rising sooner than you thinkRegional variation means Atlantic shorelines are already at risk of floodingWhat the science says: There’s a political truism that also applies to understanding one of the most pressing problems created by human-driven climate change: All sea level rise is local. As the world warms, its oceans are swelling by an average of 3.2 millimeters a year; they have risen by nearly the height of a playing card since 1993. Some 40% of this increase stems from the physical expansion of water as it heats. The rest is mostly caused by melting mountain glaciers and, especially in recent years, retreating ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. If current emission trends continue, the seas could rise by a half-meter or more by century’s end.But these tidy figures hide a harsh and more complex reality: Because of regional geology, ocean currents, and shifts in gravitational pull caused by changes on Earth’s surface, such as the melting of massive ice sheets, the ocean does not rise evenly everywhere. That means some U.S. shorelines are at much greater risk of near-term flooding than others. Although the erosion of southern Louisiana is well-known, for instance, much of the East Coast is sinking as Earth’s mantle, deep below, continues to adjust in complex ways to the disappearance of weighty ice age glaciers. From Maryland to the Carolinas, groundwater pumping is exacerbating subsidence. And Atlantic currents that whisk warm, tropical water north, and, ultimately, away from the coast, have weakened in recent years, allowing water to slosh toward land. Together, these forces mean East Coast sea levels are rising at double the global rate, and at triple the average in Virginia and many points north.Why it matters: Nearly 40% of the U.S. population lives near the coast, and shorelines host extensive infrastructure—including roads, rail lines, ports, military bases, and energy, water, and sewer plants—that will cost billions of dollars to protect or replace. Already, shorefront communities in hot spots of sea level rise, such as Hampton Roads, Virginia, and Miami Beach, Florida, are seeing tidal floods—even on sunny days—that clog traffic, poison lawns, and corrode utilities. Key ecosystems are also at risk of inundation, such as wetlands and aquatic grass beds that help protect coastlines from storms and provide important nursery grounds for economically important fish. This rising stage also allows stormwaters to surge deeper and higher inland, exacerbating their damage.Pending policy issues: Given that some increase in sea level is now inevitable as a result of past emissions, how can the federal government best help communities prepare for and adapt to rising waters? How can policymakers prevent initiatives involving many agencies at the local, state, and federal levels from duplicating effort or engaging in turf wars? Who should decide when communities build defenses, or simply retreat? What research should be funded on climate and adaptation? (Local planners, for instance, would benefit if researchers could reduce the uncertainty in projections of sea level rise over the next century, by better understanding how ice sheets in Greenland and West Antarctica are melting.) Above all: How can the world reduce the global emissions of greenhouse gases that are driving sea level rise? —Paul Voosen Related article Machines are getting much, much smarterAdvances in artificial intelligence carry promise and perilWhat the science says: After years of halting progress, artificial intelligence (AI)—which aims to give machines a humanlike ability to gather information, learn, and make independent decisions—is taking off. More powerful processors, together with sophisticated pattern-seeking algorithms that learn from massive data sets and the surrounding world, have turned science fiction into everyday reality: phones that understand speech, vehicles that navigate on their own, machines that can trounce humans in complicated games. This past March, a largely self-taught computer program beat one of the world’s best human players of the board game Go—an achievement AI experts hadn’t expected for another decade. Researchers have also built systems that can accurately recognize images, help make investment decisions, and help control traffic flows and energy use. And they have figured out ways of helping advertisers place ads more effectively on the internet.Why it matters: Although experts say we are still decades away from machines that truly think like humans, narrower applications of AI are already having an impact on society. Products and services from self-driving cars to systems that guide medical care and treatment could bring major benefits, including increased labor productivity, lucrative new markets, and fewer deaths from traffic accidents and medical mistakes. But AI brings worries, too. It will enable employers to automate more tasks and displace workers, and economists predict that some low-wage jobs will be among the first to be eliminated, possibly increasing economic inequality. Letting machines make their own decisions also raises profound ethical, legal, and regulatory questions. Who is responsible if an autonomous car crashes, a piece of software wrecks an investment portfolio, or a sensor switches a stoplight to green at the wrong time? The stakes are even higher on the battlefield, where the military is exploring the possibility of fielding autonomous lethal weapons that would make their own decisions about when to fire.Pending policy issues: Many companies are eager to get self-driving cars on the road and autonomous aircraft into the skies, and want federal regulators to quickly clarify the rules. The next president will also have to decide how much the federal government should spend on AI research. (It currently invests about $1 billion a year.) And the administration will need to keep a close eye on AI’s impact on the economy, workforce, and national security if the United States doesn’t want surprises as this technology ripples across the planet. —David Malakoff Evolution promises unpleasant surprisesPathogens change faster than our defensesWhat the science says: The viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites that cause disease in people, farm animals, wildlife, trees, and crops are in an arms race with their hosts. Unfortunately for us, they often gain the upper hand, evolving the ability to evade or overrun host defenses and potentially becoming deadly superbugs. And because many disease-causing agents reproduce so quickly—the gut bug Escherichia coli can double its numbers in as little as 17 minutes—they can outrace our ability to develop new treatments. This fundamental process has helped produce bacteria that can resist antibiotics and deadly flu viruses that can jump from animals such as birds, bats, and pigs to humans, posing the threat of a global pandemic that could kill millions. Bacteria and other organisms can even trade genes through a process called lateral transfer, accelerating the spread of traits like drug resistance.Why it matters: Evolving pathogens can threaten our food and water supplies, natural resources, and health. In the United States, 2 million people develop antibiotic-resistant infections each year, and 23,000 die. Globally, the World Health Organization estimates that in 2015 there were 580,000 new cases of tuberculosis resistant to the two most powerful drugs used against this disease. Increasing drug resistance in malaria, HIV, and other major diseases threatens to undermine control efforts. And recently emerged threats, such as the Zika and Ebola viruses, are certain to evolve in ways that can be hard to predict. To develop treatments, scientists often must work with the most dangerous pathogens in laboratories, and sometimes even engineer new strains; this creates the possibility of accidental or intentional releases that could have dire consequences.Pending policy issues: The United States needs to be ready for serious epidemics, and even a global pandemic. Readiness requires international cooperation and coordination, because diseases respect no borders. Experts say disease surveillance systems need improvement, along with diagnostic tools and treatments, but obtaining funding for these activities has proven problematic. Policies must ensure that work with the most dangerous agents is done in safe, secure laboratories—but regulations must not stifle needed research. The next president will also need to implement the U.S. National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, launched in 2015 to curb the overuse of antibiotics in health care and agriculture, which has spurred the evolution of resistant strains. And the new administration will have to find ways to create incentives for drug companies to develop new antibiotics, which have little profit potential, to replace ineffective drugs.—Elizabeth Pennisi Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Brain health should be top of mindThe personal and budgetary costs of Alzheimer’s disease and other maladies are immenseWhat the science says: The human brain, with its 86 billion neurons and trillions of connections, orchestrates everything from understanding and memory to movement and sleep. Throughout life, its networks of neurons are constantly resculpted by influences including learning and experience, lifestyle, injury, and disease. Some areas of the brain also grow new neurons, contrary to the long-standing idea that the number is fixed very early in life. Neuroscientists are poised to discover how the brain works in unprecedented detail, thanks to advances in large-scale computing and revolutionary new tools such as optogenetics, which allows investigators to prod neurons into action and watch them work in real time.Why it matters: Brain health touches us from cradle to grave, and when brain disease strikes, the costs—personal and budgetary—are staggering. By 2025, at least 7 million Americans are expected to suffer from Alzheimer’s disease, which causes memory loss, personality changes, impaired reasoning, and, eventually, death. This year alone, treating and caring for Americans with Alzheimer’s and other less common dementias cost $236 billion, with government health programs shouldering two-thirds of the cost. At the other end of life, the prevalence of autism, a disorder of language and social communication, rose by 123% between 2002 and 2012. That year, one in 68 U.S. children was affected; costs to each affected family are estimated at about $60,000 annually.Other brain health issues abound. Learning disabilities are a big issue in classrooms; mental illness is common in the homeless, in addicts, and in prison inmates; and concussions have become a major concern in sports. The military faces the burden of treating traumatic brain injuries and the psychological aftereffects of combat. Effective diagnostics and treatments could make a huge difference.Pending policy issues: The new president will have to plan for a ramp-up in spending on care for elderly people with brain disease, and decide how high a priority to place on spending for brain research. Since 2014, federal agencies have spent more than $750 million on the Obama administration’s Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies Initiative; and the next White House will determine how it evolves. At the same time, advocacy groups are pushing for expanded spending on research into maladies from pediatric brain cancer to Alzheimer’s disease. Funding for Alzheimer’s grew by some $350 million in 2016, and Congress may dole out at least as big an increase in the coming year. In the meantime, many law enforcement agencies are seeking more cash assistance for programs related to mental health in prisons and criminal justice proceedings. Balancing these competing priorities will be a challenge in the current budget climate, especially as mandatory spending on programs like Medicare expands, limiting available funds. —Meredith Wadman © Lucas Jackson / Reuters President Gerald Ford, for instance, spent much of 1976 dogged by what the media dubbed the swine flu fiasco. After a new strain of the H1N1 swine flu virus appeared in soldiers, public health experts urged a massive vaccination campaign. Some 40 million Americans got the vaccine, but the effort was plagued by missteps, and the flu turned out to be less dangerous than believed. Some analysts believe the episode contributed to Ford’s loss to Jimmy Carter that year. Science Source Science lessons for the next president Chris Maddaloni/Nature center_img Science in the Oval Office: 1933–2016 © Carlo Allegri / Reuters Floods, like this one in North Carolina earlier this year, will become more common as sea level rises. Smart drones and other weapons could ultimately make their own decisions about when to attack. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Surgeons prepare a genetically modified pig lung for transplantation experiments. We aren’t so great at assessing riskGut instinct can lead to poor policyWhat the science says: When experts calculate risk, they rely on statistics, but ordinary people tend to rely on their guts. Both approaches have their pitfalls, says Paul Slovic, a pioneer in the psychological study of risk at the University of Oregon in Eugene. “There is wisdom and foolishness on both sides of the divide,” he says.One downside of gut assessments is obvious: They lead us to overestimate the chances of horrible things happening and underestimate more familiar risks. For example, since the attacks of 9/11, terrorists have killed at most a few hundred Americans. Over the same period, car accidents have killed more than 500,000 and heart disease roughly 8 million—perils we tend to take in stride.At the same time, the instinctive dread we feel regarding a terrorist attack or plane crash doesn’t necessarily scale up to larger humanitarian crises where many thousands of people risk starvation, deprivation, or death. “We underreact to the statistics of catastrophe,” Slovic says. We also tend to underestimate more diffuse threats that unfold slowly over time or across a wide area—such as the economic and public health impacts of climate change. The next president needs to understand how gut-level assessments can lead to misperception of risk.Expert risk assessments, on the other hand, may seem totally objective because they’re based on numbers. But even experts have to make judgment calls about which numbers really matter, and how to express the risk. In evaluating the threat from a toxic chemical leak, for instance, they might describe the risk simply in terms of the number of expected fatalities (likely to be low), or as the percent increase in risk of a rare cancer (which could be large). Changing the endpoints can alter the perception of risk, and of course experts themselves can have different biases and agendas.Why it matters: Misperception of risk can push a president to overreact to lesser threats and underreact to greater problems, or to embrace policies that may make people feel good but end up being costly and ineffective—or even counterproductive. And how a president communicates with the public about risk can mean the difference between sowing panic and maintaining calm. Talking realistically about risks in advance—as opposed to promising absolute protection—may help prepare people for the inevitable disasters and minimize calls for a policy response that’s out of proportion to the actual threat. To do this effectively, the president will have to maintain the public’s trust, which is much harder to earn than it is to lose. Understanding the basic psychology of risk can help avoid missteps.Pending policy issues: The next president will face a lengthy list of policy decisions surrounding known risks, including terrorist attacks, foreign conflicts, domestic crime and violence, flu pandemics, and natural disasters. But there will be emerging issues, too, including the potential risks of new technologies such as DNA editing and autonomous cars. With each, the challenge will be correctly assessing the risk, communicating it to the public, and developing sensible policies that can win support from voters, affected industries, and local, federal, and state policymakers. —Greg Miller New York City officials boosted police presence in Times Square after the Boston Marathon bombings in 2013, but people tend to overestimate the likelihood of such events. Living Art Enterprises / Science Source By David Malakoff, Jeffrey MervisOct. 20, 2016 , 2:00 PM George W. Bush won the 2000 presidential election after promising to be a “compassionate conservative” who would cut taxes, promote education, and boost the economy. His presidency, however, soon became dominated by the 2001 terrorist attacks and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. But history will note that two science-focused events bracketed the 9/11 attacks. A month earlier, Bush wrestled with whether to allow federal funding for research involving stem cells taken from human embryos. And just a week after the attacks, someone mailed anthrax-filled letters to media outlets and politicians, killing five people and prompting the White House to launch a massive effort to improve bioterror defenses.New presidents typically move into the White House neither expecting to spend much time on such arcane technical issues, nor prepared to. But history shows that, ready or not, every president ends up grappling with a host of science-related policy issues or crises. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Many scientists derided President Ronald Reagan’s attempt to build a space-based laser system that could shoot down Soviet missiles as a Star Wars fantasy. But Reagan’s muscular foreign policy, intended to demonstrate U.S. technological superiority over what he called “the evil empire,” also included two major civilian science projects: the Space Station Freedom, which evolved into today’s International Space Station, and the Superconducting Super Collider, a giant particle smasher that Congress ultimately canceled.What science-related issues will the next president face? Climate change is sure to loom large, as will the annual debates over how much the government should spend on basic research and which fields are likely to provide the biggest short-term economic payoff. Technological advances, from self-driving cars to genome engineering, will pose new regulatory challenges. And surprises such as disease outbreaks, oil spills, and natural disasters are all but certain.In each case, a little science savvy might help a president better understand the issues and how best to respond. With that in mind, we offer the winner of next month’s election a crash course in six areas of science that are likely to demand attention in the Oval Office over the next 4 or 8 years. Editorial: A short presidential reading listPodcast: Science lessons for the next U.S. president, human high altitude adjustments, and the elusive Higgs bisonlast_img read more

European satellite reveals motions of more than 1 billion stars and shape

first_img DPAC/Gaia/ESA/Gaia “It’s like waiting for Christmas,” said Vasily Belokurov, an astronomer at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom last week. Today, the gifts arrived: the exact positions, motions, brightnesses, and colors of 1.3 billion stars in and around the Milky Way, as tracked by the European Space Agency’s (ESA’s) €750 million Gaia satellite, which after launch in 2013 began measuring the positions of stars and, over time, how they move. On 25 April, ESA made Gaia’s second data set—based on 22 months of observations—publicly available, which should enable a precise 3D map of large portions of the galaxy and the way it moves. “Nothing comes close to what Gaia will release,” Belokurov says.One might think that the galaxy is completely mapped. But large parts of it are obscured by gas and dust, and it is hard to discern structure from the vantage of the solar system. Gaia is not only expected to clarify the spiral structures of the galaxy today, but because the satellite traces how stars move, astronomers can wind the clock backward and see how the galaxy evolved over the past 13 billion years—a field known as galactic archaeology. With Gaia’s color and brightness information, astronomers can classify the stars by composition and identify the stellar nurseries where different types were born, to understand how chemical elements were forged and distributed.Gaia isn’t only about the Milky Way. For solar system scientists, the new data set will contain data on 14,000 asteroids. That’s a small fraction of the roughly 750,000 known minor bodies, but Gaia provides orbit information 100 times more accurate than before, says University of Cambridge astronomer Gerry Gilmore, who heads the U.K. branch of Gaia’s data processing consortium. That should help astronomers identify families of asteroids and trace how they relate to each other, shedding light on the solar system’s past and how planets formed from smaller bodies. European satellite reveals motions of more than 1 billion stars and shape of the Milky Way By Daniel CleryApr. 25, 2018 , 3:00 AM Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Emailcenter_img The Large Magellanic Cloud, one of the Milky Way’s nearest neighbors, may be more massive than previously thought. The image is not a photograph, but rather a map of the density of stars detected by Gaia in each pixel. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) For cosmologists, the data set will improve distance measures to stars of known brightness such as Cepheid variables, crucial stepping stones that allow a “distance ladder” to be built out to other galaxies—so that the expansion rate of the universe, also known as the Hubble constant, can be calculated. And exoplanet hunters expect that Gaia will eventually see thousands of stars shifting from side to side because of the gravitational tugs of Jupiter-size planets in distant orbits, but these won’t emerge until the satellite’s precision improves in later data releases. “No one in the world knows what we’ll find,” says David Hogg of New York University in New York City.The Gaia team released an initial catalog in 2016 and, although it contained more than a billion stars, it only provided motions for 2 million of them. It was a “sampler to get people used to handling Gaia-type data,” Gilmore says. The 2016 release showed that the Milky Way was larger in size than previously thought. The first paper exploiting the data appeared on the arXiv preprint server on the same day. Ever since, Gilmore says, there’s been an average of one paper per day.This time, astronomers are even more geared up with algorithms that can crunch the tabular data. Belokurov says he and his group have about 50 ideas to pursue, including an assessment of the distribution of mass across the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a nearby satellite galaxy. Astronomers have long estimated the LMC’s mass at about a billion times that of the sun, but recently studies have suggested it may be heftier. With Gaia data, they may be able to see Milky Way objects that are perturbed by the LMC, which would be a sign of its more massive gravitational influence. “There’s going to be a complete science explosion,” Belokurov says. “I’m planning on not sleeping for a week or two.”Hogg is also ready for some heavy-duty Gaia hacking. For the release, he invited colleagues from around the world to gather in New York City to work on analyzing the data. He plans to start by drawing up plots that were not possible previously, to look for new trends. Graphing color versus brightness for white dwarf stars, for example, could illuminate how these stellar remnants change as they cool off and eventually become black stellar cinders. Following Gaia’s first release, “almost every plot led to a paper,” he says.The 450-strong Gaia consortium is already at work on a third data release, planned for 2020. “There are very clear areas we can improve,” says ESA’s Timo Prusti, Gaia project scientist, at the European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. For example, the team wants to return to the very brightest stars, which saturate the detector, in a special short-exposure observing mode. The team also wants to improve on ways to deal with stray light getting onto the detector, a problem which only emerged after launch.Gaia is also unusual because the scientists who work on the mission are not given a period of exclusive access to the data, a common practice in astronomy. Although Gaia consortium members get to intimately know the way the data are collected and processed, they cannot use the data to do science until after the release, just like everyone else. “It’s brave and very admirable,” Belokurov says.Gilmore says his team members have been laying bets on how many papers will hit the preprint servers on Day One. Belokurov says: “It’s like going to a festival—the festival of Gaia.”last_img read more

Federal officials pause trial testing stem cells for heart disease

first_imgThe now-paused clinical trial has explored using stem cells to repair damage to the heart. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) In the wake of a call for retractions of dozens of papers from a high-profile Harvard University heart stem cell research lab, federal officials today announced they are pausing a clinical trial based on research in this field. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in Bethesda, Maryland, explained in a statement today that the pending retractions “have raised concerns about the scientific foundations of this trial.”The treatment has seemed safe in the 90 patients studied so far, said David Goff, director of NHLBI’s Division of Cardiovascular Sciences. Many labs contributed to the basic research supporting the study, called CONCERT-HF, he said, not just the Harvard group. However, NHLBI is pausing the trial to review it because “it’s the prudent thing to do,” he said.Lab studies by cardiologist Piero Anversa of Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston have suggested a certain type of stem cell in the heart called a c-kit+ cell could regenerate heart muscle in mice. If true, the cells could form the basis of a treatment for patients with heart failure. But several labs have reported they could not replicate some of Anversa’s studies. In 2014, Harvard and Brigham and Women’s revealed they had begun a scientific misconduct investigation of Anversa’s work. (Anversa, who lost a lawsuit claiming the investigation was mishandled, no longer works at Harvard.) Email By Jocelyn KaiserOct. 29, 2018 , 1:25 PMcenter_img SPL/Science Source Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Federal officials pause trial testing stem cells for heart disease The CONCERT-HF trial for patients with chronic heart failure began to enroll 144 patients 3 years ago and was to end about a year from now. The patients are receiving one of four possible treatments: c-kit+ cells derived from a patients’ own heart tissue, a combination of c-kit+ cells and mesenchymal stem cells from the patient’s bone marrow, mesenchymal stem cells alone, or a placebo. The trial has recruited 125 of a planned 144 participants, Goff said. Of them, 117 have had blood stem cells and heart tissue collected and 90 have received treatment. No safety issues related to the treatment have arisen, although one patient died after a heart biopsy, The Washington Post reported.Goff said when the CONCERT-HF trial was approved, reviewers were aware of concerns about Anversa’s work. But eight other labs had published 11 studies supporting the c-kit+ cell treatment. “The scientific basis really relies on this independent body of work,” he said. But further concerns arose this month, when Harvard and Brigham and Women’s recommended that 31 papers from the Anversa lab be retracted because they included falsified or fabricated data. (At least one journal has already begun to retract papers.) That prompted NHLBI to convene the Data and Safety Monitoring Board that oversees the CONCERT-HF trial. It recommended last Thursday that the trial pause for a review.NHLBI has now paused the trial and asked for Harvard’s list of 31 papers to ensure that the trial is scientifically sound “out of an abundance of caution,” Goff said.He could not say how long review will take, but assured it will be done “in an expeditious manner,” particularly because patients have donated tissue and are awaiting treatment. About half of patients with chronic heart failure die within 5 years, he noted.One longtime critic of Anversa’s work suggested that questions about how c-kit+ cells might repair heart tissue in mice suggest the CONCERT-HF trial never should have started. “The problem is that if you don’t know how something works, then you don’t really have a road map of what to address to make it better,” says Deepak Srivastava, a pediatric cardiologist and president of the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco, California.But other researchers think the trial should be completed because other basic work supports the approach. “There’s plenty of reason to believe that there’s still promise,” says cardiologist Christopher Granger of Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, who is experienced in clinical trials.And cardiologist Roberto Bolli of the University of Louisville in Kentucky, a longtime Anversa collaborator and co–principal investigator of the CONCERT-HF trial, says that although Anversa’s contention that c-kit+ cells engraft in the heart and differentiate into cardiac cells has “been debunked,” other work supports the idea that these cells help by secreting so-called paracrine factors that promote heart tissue growth. “The controversy [over Anversa’s work] does not really change the validity of using c-kit cells,” Bolli says.Another trial, based in Florida, planned to begin to treat infants born with a certain heart defect with c-kit+ cells this month; the status of the trial was unclear at press time.Goff said NHLBI continues to support basic research on c-kit+ cells and heart disease—it now funds 14 preclinical grants, he said.With reporting by Jennifer Couzin-Frankel. *Update, 30 October, 2:30 p.m.: The number of preclinical grants supported by NHLBI has been updated.last_img read more

Japanese court rules against journalist in HPV vaccine defamation case

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country In March 2016, Ikeda, a neurologist at Shinshu University in Matsumoto, Japan, showed one such panel data purportedly showing brain damage in a mouse given the HPV vaccine. He repeated the claim for a news crew later the same day.In the June 2016 issue of the business magazine Wedge, Muranaka claimed Ikeda had not performed the experiments himself; she also said only a single mouse had been given the vaccine, and that a slide purportedly showing brain damage in Ikeda’s presentation didn’t come from that mouse. “The inescapable conclusion is that there was an ‘intention of fabrication,’” wrote Muranaka, who in 2017 was awarded the John Maddox Prize for Standing up for Science.The magazine article triggered an investigation by Shinshu University, which concluded in November 2016 that Ikeda had presented preliminary results based on an experiment with one mouse as “scientifically proven.” Japan’s health ministry issued a statement saying Ikeda’s results “have not proven anything about whether the symptoms that occurred after HPV vaccination were caused by the HPV vaccine,” and blasting him for his “very regrettable” responsibility in “causing misunderstanding among citizens.”But the court sidestepped questions about the vaccine itself and ruled that Muranaka had not provided convincing evidence of fabrication. Muranaka and the magazine will have to pay Ikeda 3.3 million yen (about $29,900), plus part of his legal expenses. They also must post an apology and delete portions of the online article.Ikeda welcomed the ruling, saying a charge of fabrication would leave him “unable to address academic society,” according to press reports of a postruling press conference. He seemed to downplay the significance of what he said previously about the mouse experiments, arguing they were just one way to clarify why some vaccine recipients suffer brain disorders.“I am sorry to hear [the] Tokyo district court ignored science and [the] public interest,” Muranaka wrote in a statement posted online. However, “This decision has nothing to do with the safety of the HPV vaccines,” she noted. Women who saw Ikeda’s presentation on TV and decided against vaccination “lost the chance to protect their life and health,” Muranaka wrote. She told Science that she will appeal. “I must win this case for the sake of  freedom of scientific speech and sound science,” she says.  A Japanese court ruled yesterday that a medical journalist who has championed vaccination to reduce the risk of cervical cancer defamed a neurologist by writing that he had fabricated data showing a link between the vaccine and brain damage in mice.The case had been closely watched by vaccine proponents, who worried the decision might embolden those in Japan and elsewhere who claim shots against the human papillomavirus (HPV) cause chronic pain and movement disorders in humans. To their relief, the court in Tokyo didn’t address that question; it only said that Riko Muranaka, a doctor, medical writer, and lecturer at Kyoto University in Japan, had not provided evidence that neurologist Shuichi Ikeda had made up the data behind his controversial claim.The case comes against a backdrop of deep mistrust against the HPV vaccine, introduced in Japan in 2009 and added to the national vaccine program in April 2013. That same year, some vaccine recipients complained about severe side effects. In June 2013, the health ministry suspended its recommendation that all girls in their early teens receive the vaccine, causing the vaccination rate to drop from 70% for girls born in the mid-1990s to 1% today. The health ministry has also funded research and set up advisory panels to study the alleged side effects. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) “I must win this case for the sake of  freedom of scientific speech and sound science.”  Takuma Suda Riko Muranaka By Dennis NormileMar. 27, 2019 , 4:00 PM The battle over HPV vaccines in Japan is set to continue. Vaccinees have brought class action lawsuits against two vaccine producers and the health ministry seeking damages for alleged side effects. Those suits are expected to drag on for years.Meanwhile, evidence for the safety and efficacy of the three HPV vaccines on the worldwide market continues to grow. In a July 2017 update, for instance, the World Health Organization’s Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety noted that at the time 270 million doses of HPV vaccines had been distributed. There is “no evidence to suggest a causal association” between the HPV vaccine and the various syndromes or symptoms reported as side effects, the update states, adding that the committee “considers HPV vaccines to be extremely safe.” As for efficacy, the update noted that countries that have included HPV vaccines in national immunization programs have seen a 50% decrease in the incidence of cervical precancerous lesions among younger women.Whether the verdict will have any impact outside Japan remains to be seen. “I think what is important is that media coverage does not distort the point and imply Dr. Ikeda’s science won: It was Dr. Muranaka’s manners and language that lost,” says Heidi Larson, director of the Vaccine Confidence Project at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.*Correction, 28 March, 5:05 a.m.: The headline of this story has been adjusted to show the court did not find the defendant guilty, though it did rule in favor of the plaintiff in a civil defamation suit. Japanese court rules against journalist in HPV vaccine defamation case Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Riko Muranaka did not provide evidence that research data were fabricated, a court in Tokyo said.last_img read more

Halle Berry Refuses To Ignore Black Reporters

first_img Halle Berry , John Wick , red carpet For any Black folks who work in media, you know the struggle of getting access to celebrities — even other Black celebrities. In press rooms or red carpets there are usually only one or two Black reporters and they are pushed all the way in back. Thankfully, Oscar winner Halle Berry refused to ignore Black reporters and she is getting some rightful love for it.SEE ALSO: Some No Name, Pitchy R&B Singer Disrespected Keith Sweat And Gets Demolished On Twitter On the red carpet for “John Wick 3” there were only two Black reporters, according to Emerald Marie from @Whereisthebuzz. She was trying to get the attention of Halle Berry for only a few seconds and was told by a publicist that she was just too busy. However, when the ageless 52-year-old saw the only two Black reporters, Marie says she said, “I can’t skip my brother and sister.” Halle walked right past the publicist and walled over to do the interviews. A$AP Rocky Being In A Swedish Prison Will Not Stop Her From Going To The Country That Showed Her ‘So Much Love’ Jesse Jackson Demands ‘Justice Now’ At EJ Bradford’s Moving Funeral Ceremony Can’t complain that our stories aren’t told or accurately covered if you’re forever giving interviews to mainstream outlets who don’t know about your career, or why you resonate with your community.— Jemele Hill (@jemelehill) May 16, 2019Well said.Shout out to the legendary Halle Berry. “John Wick 3” is in theaters tomorrow.SEE ALSO:All The Ways Cops Are Still Trying To Cover Up LaQuan McDonald’s ExecutionOutrageous! Figurines Of White Cherub Crushing Head Of Black Angel Removed From Dollar StoreMeet Jogger Joe, The Man Who Took Racist Cue From BBQ Becky In Tossing Homeless Man’s Clothes Watch an emotional Emerald Marie tell the story below:Berry has gotten tons of love for the gesture. SiriusXM host Clay Cane wrote, “Great to see @halleberry show love to the Black reporters. When I worked red carpets, there’d be 2 Black outlets (ALLLL the way in the back, we called it the colored section) & you’re ignored by people who look like you. This happened more often than not.”Writer and commentator Jemele Hill wrote, “Bravo to @halleberry for stopping to speak to 1 of 2 black reporters covering this event. Memo to black celebs: Question any publicist or rep that doesn’t include black journalists/media in the coverage plan.”She also tweeted, “Can’t complain that our stories aren’t told or accurately covered if you’re forever giving interviews to mainstream outlets who don’t know about your career, or why you resonate with your community… Besides, most of these outlets have little to no representation and if you’re constantly rewarding them with interviews — especially once you really blow up — then they have no incentive to hire black journalists. That’s it. Those are the tweets.”center_img More By NewsOne Staff Meghan McCain Whines That She Can’t Attack llhan Omar Because Trump Is Too Racist Emantic "EJ" Fitzgerald Braford Jr. Gov. Cuomo Slams Mayor Bill De Blasio For The Eric Garner Case But He Also Failed The Familylast_img read more

New York DA Refuses To Review Convictions

first_imgSee Also: A Timeline Of Dallas Cop Amber Guyger Killing Botham Jean In His Own Home Derion Vence, Maleah Davis, Brittany Bowens Entertainment, News and Lifestyle for Black America. News told by us for us. Black America’s #1 News Source: Our News. Our Voice. SUBSCRIBE Gov. Cuomo Slams Mayor Bill De Blasio For The Eric Garner Case But He Also Failed The Family A$AP Rocky Being In A Swedish Prison Will Not Stop Her From Going To The Country That Showed Her ‘So Much Love’ Meghan McCain Whines That She Can’t Attack llhan Omar Because Trump Is Too Racist Central Park 5 , Elizabeth Lederer , Linda Fairstein , Manhattan District Attorney’s Office , When They See Us center_img In 2002, the five men were exonerated by the New York State Supreme Court only because a fellow inmate came forward to confess — even though there was never any DNA evidence linking them to the crime. Linda Fairstein and even our current president still insist they are guilty. As for Lederer, she has not spoken out publicly about the case.Watch the powerful trailer for “When They See Us” below, which is available on Netflix.SEE ALSO:‘It’s Above Me Now’: Hotel Clerk’s Video With Racist Guest Goes Viral‘Who Said I Can’t Say Ni**a?’: Blackface Video Of High School Student Sparks OutrageMeet Jogger Joe, The Man Who Took Racist Cue From BBQ Becky In Tossing Homeless Man’s Clothes On Friday, Public Advocate Jumaane Williams along with the Neighborhood Defender Service of Harlem, the Legal Aid Society and the New York County Defender Services called for a review of 26 years’ worth of Lederer’s cases. They also demanded that she be fired — she has been employed bu New York County DA’s office for 40 years.According to the New York Daily News, Cyrus Vance replied with, “I do not intend to take either action at this time” and said Lederer is “an attorney in good standing in this office.” Sounds like locking up children is “good standing” for his office.Lederer resigned from Columbia University in a letter to faculty and students that read in part, “I’ve enjoyed my years teaching at CLS, and the opportunity it has given me to interact with the many fine students who elected to take my classes. However, given the nature of the recent publicity generated by the Netflix portrayal of the Central Park case, it is best for me not to renew my teaching application.”The law school dean, Gillian Lester, also added the mini-series “reignited a painful — and vital — national conversation about race, identity, and criminal justice” and “I am deeply committed to fostering a learning environment that furthers this important and ongoing dialogue, one that draws upon the lived experiences of all members of our community and actively confronts the most difficult issues of our time.” More By NewsOne Staff The outrage over Ava DuVernay‘s “When They See Us” has caused Elizabeth Lederer, the lead district attorney on the case that locked up Black children in April of 1989, to resign from Columbia University. In addition, Linda Fairstein, the original prosector on the case, was dropped from her publisher and forced to leave several boards. Now there are calls for all of their cases to be revisted considering they stole the innocence of Kevin Richardson, Raymond Santana, Antron McCray, Yusef Salaam and Korey Wise. However, Manhattan D.A. Cyrus Vance is refusing.  A Disturbing Timeline Of 4-Year-Old Maleah Davis Going Missing After Being Left With Her Stepfather Thanks for signing up! Get ready for Exclusive content, Interviews,and Breaking news delivered direct to your inbox. Get ready for Exclusive content, Interviews,and Breaking news delivered direct to your inbox.last_img read more

Dog breeds really do have distinct personalities—and theyre rooted in DNA

first_img American Kennel Club descriptions of dog breeds can read like online dating profiles: The border collie is a workaholic; the German shepherd will put its life on the line for loved ones. Now, in the most comprehensive study of its kind to date, scientists have shown that such distinct breed traits are actually rooted in a dog’s genes. The findings may shed light on human behaviors as well.“It’s a huge advance,” says Elaine Ostrander, a mammalian geneticist at the National Human Genome Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, who was not involved with the work. “It’s a finite number of genes, and a lot of them do make sense.”When the dog genome was sequenced in 2005, scientists thought they would quickly be able to pin down the genes that give every breed its hallmark personality. But they found so much variation even within a breed that they could never study enough dogs to get meaningful results. By Elizabeth PennisiJan. 7, 2019 , 1:00 PM Click to view the privacy policy. 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Countrycenter_img Border collies are known for their strong work ethic, even—it seems—when it comes to carrying tennis balls. Dog breeds really do have distinct personalities—and they’re rooted in DNA Mark Raycroft/Minden Pictures So in the new study, Evan MacLean, a comparative psychologist at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Noah Snyder-Mackler at the University of Washington in Seattle, and colleagues began by looking at behavioral data for about 14,000 dogs from 101 breeds. The analyses come from the Canine Behavioral Assessment & Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ), a sort of pet personality quiz developed by James Serpell, an ethologist at the University of Pennsylvania. C-BARQ asks questions like, “What does your dog do when a stranger comes to the door?” to allow owners to objectively characterize 14 aspects of their pet’s personalities, including trainability, attachment, and aggression. Since the survey was developed in 2003, more than 50,000 owners have participated.The team matched up these behavioral data for each breed with genetic data about breeds from different sets of dogs. They didn’t look at genetic and behavioral data for individual dogs, but rather averages across a specific breed. In all, the team identified 131 places in a dog’s DNA that may help shape 14 key personality traits. Together, these DNA regions explain about 15% of a dog breed’s personality, with each exerting only a small effect. Trainability, chasing, and a tendency to be aggressive toward strangers were the most highly heritable traits, the scientists report in a paper posted this month on the preprint server bioRxiv.The locations of these DNA hot spots make sense: Some are within or close to genes tied to aggression in humans, for example, whereas DNA associated with the dog’s level of trainability is found in genes that in humans are associated with intelligence and information processing.The findings suggest behavior is guided by the same genes in many species, MacLean says. And if, for example, genes underlying anxiety in dogs lead to those same genes in people, that discovery may ultimately lead to better treatments for anxiety-related disorders, Serpell says. “These are the kinds of things we can see in the future.”Because the genetic and behavioral data come from different sets of dogs, the work cannot link a breed’s specific behavioral tendencies to any one gene. “This paper doesn’t call out any particular breed for its behavior. It relies on behaviors that are found in many breeds,” says Heidi Parker, a genome scientist at the National Human Genome Research Institute who, with Ostrander, pioneered some of the early work on dog genomes.Thus, for example, Serpell’s behavioral work has shown that pit bulls are aggressive toward other dogs but not people, but this new analysis can’t lead to a DNA test of that behavior. However, Serpell and his colleagues are starting more studies looking at the DNA linked to within-breed variation in behavior, a step in that direction. Such work has been done on a small scale to pinpoint the gene for superfriendly behavior.Until more of those connections are made, “I am not sure how widely accepted the results will be,” says Robert Wayne, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Los Angeles. He and dog genetics expert Elinor Karlsson from the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester point out that this study finds a much bigger role for genetics in shaping behavior than previous studies and so think more work needs to be done to verify the findings.*Update, 9 December, 1:35 p.m.: This story has been updated to include the contributions of Noah Snyder-Mackler.last_img read more

After outcry Battelle reinstates science panel at ecological observatory

first_img Travis Huxman, chair of STEAC and a plant physiologist at the University of California, Irvine, sees the reinstatement as an important step as the 81-site facility, based in Boulder, Colorado, moves from construction to operations. On 14 January, he and other former STEAC members had written to Battelle and NSF, urging the reinstatement of the panel.“It’s rare that I complain and that something good comes from it,” Huxman says. But he’s pleased. “Our goal is to preserve the community’s voice in this important project. And I think this [email] is what the members were looking for.”Huxman responded immediately to Kuhlman, writing that panel members “are committed to work with you to make NEON a success.” STEAC’s next meeting was scheduled for April, and Huxman says he hopes to stick to that schedule. The contractor running a major U.S. ecological research facility has reversed its decision to disband a scientific advisory panel. The move had drawn fierce criticism from researchers.Battelle Memorial Institute, the Columbus-based nonprofit that manages the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) for the National Science Foundation (NSF), said today it will reinstate the project’s Science, Technology & Education Advisory Committee (STEAC). Batelle had dissolved the panel last week, hours after NEON’s chief scientist, Sharon Collinge, resigned. Collinge acted after Battelle fired two senior NEON managers without her knowledge and consent.A Battelle official apologized today to STEAC’s 20 members and invited them to meet with the project’s acting chief scientist, Eugene Kelly. “My decision to dissolve the STEAC was based on my erroneous assumption that such advisory bodies were routinely reconstituted at the change of leadership of NSF large facilities,” Michael Kuhlman, Battelle’s chief scientist, explained in an email to the researchers, several of whom had threatened to resign in support of Collinge. “That was incorrect, and I accept full responsibility for my error.” Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Email Trevor Frost Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwecenter_img By Jeffrey MervisJan. 17, 2019 , 2:00 PM A collection tower at one of the 81 National Ecological Observatory Network sites that will be gathering environmental data for decades. After outcry, Battelle reinstates science panel at ecological observatory Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)last_img read more